Inactivation of Rhabdovirus carpio (spring viraemia of carp virus) in an EPC cell line by silver nanoparticles

Document Type : Research Paper



Among aquatic animal pathogens, viruses have the most sensible role and cause higher mortalities than other pathogens due to the high infectivity, difficult diagnosis and high severity. In this study, antiviral activity of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) against Rhabdovirus carpio, the etiological agent of spring viraemia of carp (SVC), in epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line was monitored. Cytotoxic concentration 50% (CC50) of Ag-NPs in EPC cells was determined and the concentration 0.5 CC50 was used. Viral exposure to Ag-NPs was performed using simultaneous and delayed inoculation of the virus and Ag-NPs onto EPC cells. The inoculated cells were monitored for six days for any cytopathic effects and mortalities. According to the results, the CC50 of Ag-NPs was determined 62mg/L. In addition, mortalities of simultaneous and delayed inoculated cells were recorded 39% and 26% respectively, while in the meantime 100% of the cells inoculated with pure SVCV were died. Thus, it could be concluded that Ag-NPs have an appropriate antiviral activity against SVCV in their less toxic concentrations and could be employed as an antiviral agent in aquaculture.


محمدی ع.وزمانیح.1390.مرجع کامل میکروب‌شناسی عمومی. انتشارات آراد. 540ص.
Ahamed M., Alsalhi M.S. and Siddiqui M.K.J. 2010. Silver nanoparticle applications and human health. Clinica Chimica Acta, 411(23): 1841–1848.
Ahne W., Bjorklund H.V., Essbauer S., Fijan N., Kurath G. and Winton J.R. 2002. Spring viremia of carp (SVC). Disease of Aquatic Organisms, 52: 261–272.
ChernousovaS.andEppleM.2013. Silver as antibacterial agent: Ion, nanoparticle, and metal. Angewandte Chemie, 52(6): 1636–1653.
Dimmock N.J., Easton A.J. and Leppard K.N. 2016. Introduction to Modern Virology. John Wiley and Sons, Australia. 516P.
Dixon P.F. 2008. Virus diseases of cyprinids. P: 87–184. In: Eiras J., Segner H., Wahli T. and Kapoor B.G. (Eds.). Fish Diseases, Vol. 1. Enfield: Science Publishers. England.
Franci G., Falanga A., Galdiero S., Palomba L., Rai M., Morelli G. and Galdiero M. 2015. Silver nanoparticles as potential anti-bacterial agents. Molecules, 20(5): 8856–8874.
Gaikwad S., Ingle A., Gade A., Rai M., Falanga A., Incoronato N., Russo L., Galdiero S. andGaldiero M. 2013. Antiviral activity of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles against herpes simplex virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 8: 4303–4314.
Haenen L.M. and Davidse A. 1993. Comparative pathogenicity of two strains of pike fry rhabdovirus and spring viraemia of carp virus for young roach, common carp, grass carp and rainbow trout. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 15: 87–92.
Kawata K., Osawa M. and Okabe S. 2009. In vitro toxicity of silver nanoparticles at noncytotoxic doses to HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Environmental Science and Technology, 43(15): 6046–6051.
Khandelwal N., Kaur G., Kumar N. and Tiwari A. 2014. Application of silver nanoparticles in viral inhibition: A new hope for antivirals. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, 9(1): 175–186.
Kim J.S., Kuk E., Yu K.N., Kim J.H., Park S.J., Lee H.J., Kim S.H., Park Y.K., Park Y.H., Hwang C.Y. and Kim Y.K. 2007. Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 3(1): 95–101.
Mori Y., Ono T., Miyahira Y., Nguyen V.Q., Matsui T. and Ishihara M. 2013. Antiviral activity of silver nanoparticle/chitosan composites against H1N1 influenza A virus. Nanoscale Research Letters, 8(1): 1–6.
Moritz M. and Geszke-Moritz M. 2013. The newest achievements in synthesis, immobilization and practical applications of antibacterial nanoparticles. Chemical Engineering Journal, 228: 596–613.
OIE (Office International des Epizooties) 2012. Spring viraemia of carp. Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. P: 257–273.
Pokharkar V.B., Dhapte V.V. and Kadam S.S. 2014. Metallic nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. P: 278–294. In: Arias J.L. (Ed.). Nanotechnology and Drug Delivery: Nanoplatforms in Drug Delivery, Vol. 1. CRC Press, England. 380P.
Reed L.J. and Muench H. 1938. A simple method of estimating fifty percent end points. American Journal of Hygiene, 27: 493–497.
Sondi I. and Salopek-Sondi B. 2004. Silver nanoparticles as anti-microbial agent: A case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 275(1): 177–182.
Stone D.M., Ahne W., Denham K.L., Dixon P.F., Liu C.T., Sheppard A.M., Taylor G.R. and Way K. 2003. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the glycoprotein gene of putative spring viraemia of carp virus and pike fry rhabdovirus isolates reveals four genogroups. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 53: 203–210.
Tennant J.R. 1964. Evaluation of the trypan blue technique for determination of cell viability. Transplantation, 2(6): 685–694.