Effect of different levels of Lactobacillus casei as probiotic on some digestive enzymes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings

Document Type : Research Paper



Probiotics are generally defined as live microbial food supplement which improves the balance of the host animal’s intestinal flora and the absorption of nutrients from the intestine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of Lactobacillus casei (PTCC1608) on some digestive enzymes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)fingerlings. Four thousand eight hundred fingerlings (average weight 32.6±5.5g) were randomly divided into 4 groups with three replicates (each with 400 fish). The control group fed with basal diet and the other groups were fed with 5×106 (A), 5×107 (B) and 5×108(C) CFU/mL L. casei for 60 days. Activities of digestive enzymes were examined at 0 and 60 days of study. Results showed significantly increased intestine enzymes (α-amylase, trypsin, chemotrypsin) of rainbow trout (P<0.05) at 5×106CFU/ml concentration on day 60 compared to the control group, however on day 60, no difference between other treatments and control group was observed (P>0.05). Alkaline phosphatase, lipase and protease activity at 5×106 and5×107CFU/mL concentration on day 60 showed significantly difference compared to the control group (P<0.05). These results suggest that dietary supplementation of food with L. casei at 5×106CFU/mL concentration is suitable for enhancing the digestive enzymes activity of O. mykiss but higher concentrations of these probiotics have negative effects on O. mykiss.


آذری تاکامی ق. 1363. اصول تکثیر و پرورش ماهی. انتشارات وزارت کشاورزی. معاونت شیلات و آبزیان. 167ص.
پورامینیم. و حسینی‌فر ح. 1386. کاربرد پروبیوتیک‌ها و پربیوتیک‌ها در آبزی‌پروری. انتشارات موج سبز. 104ص.
ضیایی‌نژادس.،رفیعیغ.،میرواقفیع.و فرحمند ح. 1394. بررسی تاثیر باکتری‌های باسیلوس سابتیلیس و لاکتوباسیلوس پلانتاروم در شاخص‌های رشد، بازماندگی و فلور میکروبی دستگاه گوارش لارو ماهی شانک زرد باله (Acanthopagrus latus) با شیوه‌های رسانش مختلف. شیلات، مجله منابع طبیعی ایران، 68(2): 298-287.
Adamek Z., Hamackova J., Kouril J., Vachta R. and Stibranyiova I. 1996. Effect of Ascogen probiotics supplementation on farming success in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and wels (Silurus glanis) under conditions of intensive culture. Krmiva (Zagreb), 38(1): 11–20.
Ahmadnia Motlag H.R., Farhangi M., Rafiee G.H. and Noori F. 2012. Modulating gut microbiota and digestive enzyme activities of Artemia urmiana by administration of different levels of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Aquaculture International, 20(4): 693–705.
Babu S.M., Banerjee C.S. and Abraham T.J. 2003. Effect of gram positive bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. on the growth performance of gold fish, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758. Environmental Ecology, 21: 17–19.
Bagheri T., Hedayati S.A., Yavari
V., Alizade M. and Farzanfar A. 2008. Growth, survival and gut microbial load of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry given diet supplemented with probiotic during the two months of first feeding. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 8: 43–48.
Bernfeld P. 1951. Amylases α and β. P: 149–157. In: Colowick P. and Kaplan N.O. (Eds.). Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York.
Bessey O.A., Lowry O.H. and BrockM.J. 1946. A method for the rapid determination of alkaline phosphates with five cubic millimeters of serum. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 164: 321–329.
Cahu C.L., ZamboninoInfante J.L., Quazuguel P. and LeGall M.M. 1999. Protein hydrolysate vs. fish meal in compound diets for 10-day old sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax
larvae. Aquaculture, 171: 109–119.
Chang A.S.C. Hashim R. Chow-Yang L. and Ali A.B. 2002. Partial characterization and activities of proteases from the digestive tract of discus fish, Symphysodonaegui fasciata. Aquaculture, 203: 321–333.
Erlanger B.F., Kokowsky N. and Cohen W. 1961. The preparation and properties of two new chromogenic substrates of trypsin. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 95: 271–278.
Fuller R. 1987. Probiotics in man and animals. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 66: 365–378.
Hardy R.W. 1991. Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus spp. P: 105–121. In: Wilson R.P. (Ed.). Handbook of Nutrient Requirement of Finfish. CRC Press. USA.
Hummel B.C.W. 1959. A modified spectrophotometric determinations of chymotrypsin, trypsin and thrombin. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, 37: 1393–1399.
Klaenhammer T.R. 2001. Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. ASM Press. Washington D.C, USA. 1118P.
Kuzmina V., Shekovtsova N. and Bolobonina V. 2010. Activity dynamics of proteinases and glycosidases of fish chyme with exposure in fresh and brackish water. Biology Bulletin, 37: 605–611.
Li P. and Gatlin D.M. 2006. Nucleotide nutrition in fish: Current knowledge and future applications. Aquaculture, 251: 141–152.
Mateo C.D. 2005. Aspects of nucleotide nutrition in pigs. Ph.D Thesis, South Dakota State University, USA. 171P.
Merrifield D.L., Bradley G., Baker R.T.M. and Davies S.J. 2009. Probiotic applications for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Effects on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal microbiota and related health criteria post antibiotic treatment. Aquaculture Nutrition, 16(5): 496–503.
Rengpipat S., Rueangruklikhit T. and Piyatiratitivorakul S. 2008. Evaluations of lactic acid bacteria as probiotics for juvenile seabass Lates calcarifer. Aquaculture Research, 39: 134–143.
Rungruangsak-Torrissen K., Rustad A., Sunde J., Eiane S.A., Jensen H.B., Opstvedt J., Nygard E., Samuelsen T.A., Mundheim H. and Luzzana U. 2002. In vitro digestibility based on fish crude enzyme extract for prediction of feed quality in growth trials. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82: 644–654.
Soleimani N., Hoseinifar S.H., Merrifield D.L., Barati M. and Hassan Abadi Z. 2012. Dietary supplementation of fructooligo-saccharide (FOS) improves the innate immune response, stress resistance, digestive enzyme activities and growth performance of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 32(2): 316–321.
Son V.M., Chang C., Wu M., Guu Y., Chiu C. and Cheng W. 2009. Dietary administration of the probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum, enhanced the growth, innate immune responses, and disease resistance of the grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 26: 691–698.
Staykov Y., Spring P., Denev S. and Sweetman J. 2007. Effect of a mannan oligosaccharide on the growth performance and immune status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture International, 15: 153–161.
Suzer C., Coban D., Kamaci H.O., SakaS.,FiratK.,OtgucuogluO. and Kucuksari H. 2008.  Lactobacillus spp. bacteria as probiotics in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae: Effects on growth. Aquaculture, 280: 140–145.
Tacon A.G.J. 1999. Trends in global aquaculture and aquafeed produc-tion: 1984-1996 highlights. P: 107–122. In: Brufau J., Tacon A. (Eds.). Feed Manufacturing in the Mediterranean Region: Recent Advances in Research and Technology. CIHEAM (Cahiers Options Mediterraneennes), Zaragoza, Spain.
Wang Y.B. and Xu Z. 2006. Effect of probiotics for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) based on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 127: 283–292.
Wang Y.B., Tian Z., Yao J. and Li W. 2008. Effect of probiotics, Enteroccus faecium, on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth performance and immune response. Aquaculture, 277: 203–207.
Webster C.D., Tru L.G. and Tidewell J.H. 1997. Growth and body composition of channel catfish (Ictaharuspunctatus) fed diets con-taining various percentage of canola meal. Aquaculture. 150: 103–113.
Worthington C.C. 1991. EnzymesRelated Biochemicals, Manual. Freehold, New Jersey. 216P.
Yanbo W. and Zirong X. 2006. Effect of probiotics for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) based on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 127: 283–292.