Evaluation of different levels Apple cider vinegar effect on hemolymph parameters and intestinal Vibrio spp. of Litopenaeus vannamei

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student in Fisheries, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

2 Professor in Fisheries Department, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor in Fisheries Department, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with apple cider vinegar on the hemolymph parameters and colonies of Vibrio spp. in the intestine of the Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, two hundred and twenty-five L. vannamei with an average initial weight of 10.2±0.04g were fed diets supplemented with of apple cider vinegar for 60 days. Triplicated Treatments included levels of 0% (control), 2% and 4% of apple cider vinegar. The shrimps were randomly sampled for determination of biochemical parameters of hemolymph and also Vibrio spp. colony counts at the end of the experiment. The results indicated that Vibrio spp. CFU counts of the shrimp fed with apple cider vinegar diets were significantly lower compared to the control group (P<0.05). The shrimps fed with the supplemental diets had significantly higher levels of total protein and calcium (P<0.05). But no significant difference was observed in the glucose level among treatments (P>0.05). In contrast, the cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly decreased in the shrimps fed with diets containing apple cider vinegar and a dramatic decrease was observed in 4% apple cider vinegar treatment (P<0.05). Results of this study indicated that the addition of apple cider vinegar can changes the hemolymph parameters and decreases Vibrio spp. CFU load in the intestine of shrimp.


حسینی‌فرد س.م.، شاکر خشرودی م.، بیکایی س.ح.، عزت رحیمی ن. و رازقی منصور م. 1391. تاثیر جایگزینی سطوح مختلف آرد سویا با آرد ماهی بر برخی از پارامترهای بیوشیمیایی همولنف در خرچنگ دراز آب شیرین (Astacus leptodactylus). مجله علمی شیلات ایران، 22(1): 184–175.
عبداللهی آرپناهی د.، جعفریان ح.، سلطانی م. و قلیپور کنعانی ح. 1393. بکارگیری دو گونه از پروبیوتیک‎های باسیلوسی بر پاسخ‎های ایمنی و فلور میکروبی روده پست‎لارو میگوی پاسفید غربی (Litopenaeus vannamei). مجله علمی شیلات ایران، 23(4): 117–105.
فرهنگیم.، احمدی س.، رفیعی غ.ر.، قاعدنیا ب. و تقوی د. 1392. بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف رنگدانه آستاگزانتین در جیره غذایی بر برخی شاخص‌های بیوشیمیایی و ایمنی غیراختصاصی میگوی جوان پاسفید غربی (Litopenaeus vannamei) در مواجهه با تنش کاهش شدید اکسیژن. مجله علوم و فنون دریایی، 12(2): 114-103.
Adeogun A.O., Salami O.A., Chukwuka A.V. and Alaka O.O. 2015. Haematological and serum biochemical profile of the blue crab, Callinectes amnicola from two tropical lagoon ecosystems. African Journal of Biotechnology, 18: 233–247.
Ai H.S., Huang Y.C., Li S.D., Weng S.P., Yu X.Q. and He J.G. 2008. Characterization of a prophenol-oxidase from hemocytes of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that is down-regulated by white spot syndrome virus. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 25(1-2): 28–39.
Apun-Molina J.P., Santamaria-Miranda A., Luna-Gonzalez A., Ibarra-Gamez J.C., Medina-Alcantar V. and Racotta I.S. 2015. Growth and metabolic responses of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in polyculture fed with potential probiotic microorganisms on different schedules. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 43(3): 435–445.
Beheshti Z., Huak Chan Y., Sharif Nia H., Hajihosseini F., Nazari R., Shaabani M. and Salehi Omran M.T. 2012. Influence of apple cider vinegar on blood lipids. Life Science Journal, 9(4): 2431–2440.
Bonilla-Gomez J.L., Chiappa-Carrara X., Galindo C., GilbertoJ., Cuzon G. and Gaxiola G. 2012. Physiological and biochemical changes of wild and cultivated juvenile pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Crustacea: Penaeidae) during molt cycle. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 32(4): 597–606.
Boonanuntanasarn S., Wongsasak U., Pitaksong T. and Chaijamrus S. 2015. Effects of dietary supplementation with β-glucan and synbiotics on growth, haemolymph chemistry, and intestinal microbiota and morphology in the Pacific white shrimp. Aquaculture Nutrition, 22(4): 837–845.
Da Silva B.C., Vieira F.N., Mourino J.L.P., Bolivar N. and Seiffert W.Q. 2014. Butyrate and propionate improve the growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Research, 47(2): 612–623.
Da Silva B.C., Vieira F.N., Mourino J.L.P., Ferreira G.S. and Seiffert W.Q. 2013. Salts of organic acids selection by multiple characteristics for marine shrimp nutrition. Aquaculture, 384–387: 104–110.
Dutra B.K., Da Silva K.M., Zank C., Conter M.R. and Oliveira G.T. 2008. Seasonal variation of the effect of high-carbohydrate and high-protein diets on the intermediate metabolism of Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) maintained in the laboratory. Iheringia, Serie Zoologia, 98(4): 433–440.
Iman M., Moallem S.A. and Barahoyee A. 2015. Effect of apple cider vinegar on blood glucose level in diabetic mice. Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20(4): 163–168.
Jin T., Wu Y. and Wang Q. 2012. The inhibitory effects of bamboo vinegar against bacteria and fungi. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing, 134: 451–457.
Kamgar M., Pourgholam R., Ghiasi M. and Ghane M. 2013. Studies on Bacillus subtilis, as potential probiotics, on the biochemical parameters of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) to challenge infections. Advanced Studies in Biology, 5(1): 37–50.
Kishi M., Fukaya M., Tsukamoto Y., Nagasawa T., Takehana K. and Nishizawa N. 1999. Enhancing effect of dietary vinegar on the intestinal absorption of calcium in ovariectomized rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 73(8): 1837–1843.
Kluge H., Broz J. and Eder K. 2006. Effect of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, gastrointestinal microflora and parameters of microbial metabolism in piglets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 90(7-8): 316–324.
Kondo T., Kishi M., Fushimi T., Ugajin S. and Kaga T. 2009. Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 73(8): 1837–1843.
Li C.H. and Cheng S. 2012. Variation of calcium levels in the tissues and hemolymph of Litopenaeus vannamei at various molting stages and salinities. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 32(1): 101–108.
Lingham T., Besong S., Ozbay G. and Lee J. 2012. Antimicrobial activity of vinegar on bacterial species isolated from retail and local channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Journal of Food Processing and Technology, 1(11): 1–5.
Liu H., Sun W., Tan B., Chi S., Dong X. and Yang Q. 2012. Molecular cloning and expression of hepatopancreas glutamine synthetase in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, induced by acute hypo-osmotic stress. Aquaculture, 362–363: 80–87.
Lowry O.H., Rosenbrough N.J., Farr A.L. and Randall R.J. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193(1): 265–275.
Mansoub N.H. 2010. Effect of probiotic bacteria utilization on serum cholesterol and triglycrides contents and performance of broiler chickens. Global Veterinaria, 5(3): 184–186.
Mine S. and Boopathy R. 2011. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi. Current Microbiology, 63(1): 1–7.
Naziroglu M., Guler M., Ozgul C., Saydam G., Kucukayaz M. and Sozbir E. 2014. Apple cider vinegar modulates serum lipid profile, erythrocyte, kidney, and liver membrane oxidative stress in ovariectomized mice fed high cholesterol. Journal of Membrane Biology, 247(8): 667–673.
Ng W.K., Koh C.B., Sudesh K. and Siti-Zahrah A. 2009. Effects of dietary organic acids on growth, nutrient digestibility and gut microflora of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., and subsequent survival during a challenge test with Streptococcus agalactiae. Aquaculture Research, 40(13): 1490–1500.
Ng W.K., Koh C.B., Teoh C.Y. and Romano N. 2015. Farm-raised tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, fed commercial feeds with added organic acids showed enhanced nutrient utilization, immune response and resistance to Vibrio harveyi challenge. Aquaculture, 449: 69–77.
Park G., Lee J.H., Yun H.Ho., Browdy C.L., Bharadwaj A.S. and Bai S.C. 2011. Effects of two different organic acid blands in olive flounder. Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture, 19: 39–42.
Reboucas H.R., de Sousa O.V., Lima A.S., Vasconcelos F.R., de Carvalho P.B. and Vieira R.H. 2011. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Vibrio species isolated from marine shrimp farming environments (Litopenaeus vannamei) at Ceara, Brazil. Environmental Research, 111(1): 21–24.
Romano N., Koh C.B. and Ng W.K. 2015. Dietary microencapsulated organic acids blend enhances growth, phosphorus utilization, immune response, hepatopancreatic integrity and resistance against Vibrio harveyi in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture, 435: 228–236.
Salem A. and Amin R. 2012. Evaluation of some organic acids as potential decontaminants of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in fresh shrimp. World Journal of Dairy and Food Sciences, 7(1): 41–48.
Schirmer B.C., Heiberg R., Eie T., Moretro T., Maugesten T., Carlehog M. and Langsrud S. 2009. A novel packaging method with a dissolving CO2 headspace combined with organic acids prolongs the shelf life of fresh salmon. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 133(1-2): 154–160.
Shah Q., Bibi F. and Shah A. 2013. Anti-microbial effects of olive oil and vinegar against Salmonella and Escherichia coli. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 14(2): 479-486.
 Sivagnanavelmurugan M., Thaddaeus B.J., Palavesam A. and Immanuel G. 2014. Dietary effect of Sargassum wightii fucoidan to enhance growth, prophenoloxidase gene expression of Penaeus monodon and immune resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 39(2): 439–449.
Sulaiman O., Murphy R.J., Hashim R. and Sanchis Gritsch C. 2005. The inhibition of microbial growth by bamboo vinegar. Journal of Bamboo and Rattan, 4(1): 71–80.
Trinidad T.P., Wolever T.M.S. and Thompson L.U. 1996. Effect of acetate from the rectum and propionate on calcium absorption and distal colon of humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63: 574–578.
Tseng D.Y., Ho P.L., Huang S.Y., Cheng S.C., Shiu Y.L., Chiu C.S. and Liu C.H. 2009. Enhancement of immunity and disease resistance in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, by the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 26(2): 339–344.
Vijayakumar C. and Wolf-Hall C.E. 2002. Evaluation of household sanitizers for reducing levels of Escherichia coli on iceberg lettuce. Journal of Food Protection, 65(10): 1646–1650.
Xie Z., Wang F., Liu H., Guo S., Zhu A. and Niu H. 2010. Gelatin-walled microencapsulated diet for larval shrimp (Penaeus japonicus Bate) manufactured using the fluidized bed coating process. Aquaculture Research, 42(1): 65–73.
Yamashita H., Fujisawa K., Ito E., Idei S., Kawaguchi N., Kimoto M., Hiemori M. and Tsuji H. 2007. Improvement of obesity and glucose tolerance by acetate in type 2 diabetic otsuka long-evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 71(5): 1236–1243.